This week: how did the threat of Western imperialism change the relationship between mainland Japan and Hokkaido, and help set the stage for Japan’s eventual colonization of the island?
Walker, Brett L. “The Early Modern Japanese State and Ainu Vaccinations: Redefining the Body Politic 1799-1868.” Past and Present No 163 (May, 1999).
Carter, Rachel Carson. “Whaling at the Margins.” RCC Perspectives 5 (2019)
Walker, Brett L. The Conquest of Ainu Lands; Ecology and Culture in Japanese Expansion, 1590-1800.