In early 1868, the armies of the loyalists and the Tokugawa bakufu will clash outside Kyoto. We’ll discuss the factors that led to the Battle of Toba-Fushimi, and why what was supposed to be a walk in the park for the Tokugawa turned into a complete disaster.
Listen to the episode here.
Totman, Conrad. The Collapse of the Tokugawa Bakufu, 1862-1868.
Craig, Albert. Choshu in the Meiji Restoration.
Jansen, Marius. The Making of Modern Japan.