1864 is probably the most important year in the Meiji Restoration that nobody really has heard of; the Tokugawa will come as close to winning their fight for control of Japan as they ever will, and the shishi movement will end up on the ropes. So, how did the Tokugawa stage such an effective comeback, and why did Tokugawa victories end up laying the groundwork for Tokugawa defeats down the line? All that and more, this week!
Listen to the episode here.
Totman, Conrad. The Collapse of the Tokugawa Bakufu, 1862-1868.
Beasley, W.G. The Meiji Restoration.
Craig, Albert. Choshu in the Meiji Restoration.