This week, we’re starting a multi-part series on the history of one of Japan’s major islands, and its first colonial frontier: Hokkaido. Today, we’ll talk about the early centuries of history between the Japanese and the Ainu, the aboriginal people of Hokkaido.
Walker, Brett L. The Conquest of Ainu Lands; Ecology and Culture in Japanese Expansion, 1590-1800.
Pearson, Richard. “Japanese Medieval Trading Towns: Sakai and Tosaminato.” Japanese Journal of Archaeology 3 (2016)
Tanaka, Sakurako. “The Ainu of Tsugaru: The Indigenous History and Shamanism of Northern Japan.” PhD Thesis, University of British Columbia, 2000.
Onishi, Hideyuki. “The Formation of the Ainu Cultural Landscape: Landscape Shift in a Hunter-Gatherer Society in the Northern Part of the Japanese Archipelago.” Journal of World Prehistory 27, No. 3/4 (December, 2014)
Plutschow, Herbert. “What Pre-Modern Japanese Travel Writing Tells Us.” Review of Japanese Culture and Society 19 (December, 2007).