This week we wrap this series up with a look at the changes in the feminist movement during the US Occupation of Japan, and with a look at the postwar careers of Ichikawa Fusae and Hiratsuka Raicho.
Kobayashi, Yoshie. A Path Toward Gender Equality: State Feminism in Japan
Huffman, James L. Modern Japan: An Encyclopedia of History, Culture, and Nationalism.
Ichikawa, Fusae and Yoko Nuita. “Fusae Ichikawa: Japanese Women Suffragist.” Frontiers: A Journal of Women’s Studies 3, No. 3 (Autumn, 1978).
Molony, Barbara. “From ‘Mothers of Humanity’ to ‘Assisting the Emperor’: Gendered Rhetoric and Belonging in the Wartime Rhetoric of Japanese Feminist Ichikawa Fusae.” Pacific Historical Review 80, No. 1(February, 2011).
Craig, Teruko, trans. In the Beginning, Woman was the Sun: The Autobiography of Hiratsuka Raicho.
Unseen Japan is a fantastic resource for more approachable material on Japanese culture and history. Here are two fantastic pieces on Hiratsuka Raicho and Ichikawa Fusae.