Not even a dead motherboard can stop me; 1865 is just too important for us to talk about! This week: Civil Wars, gunrunning, and important financial tips (hint: become an arms dealer) as we continue the march to the fall of the Tokugawa!

Listen to the episode here.


Jansen, Marius. Sakamoto Ryoma and the Meiji Restoration.

Craig, Albert. Choshu in the Meiji Restoration.

Huber, Thomas M. The Revolutionary Origins of Modern Japan.

Hane, Mikiso. Peasants, Rebels, Women and Outcasts: The Underside of Modern Japan.



A group of Kiheitai , c. 1865. Note the mix of dress style as well as Western and Japanese clothing.


Ernest Mason Satow, who did so much to facilitate the arms trade between the US/UK and anti-Tokugawa domains.


A Springfield model 1861 rifle. This was one of the most commonly issued weapons of the American Civil War, and after the conclusion of that war a large number of said rifles found their way to Japan.


Takasugi Shinsaku, who organized the shotai and in January 1865 led them in revolt against the Choshu government.