This week, the turbulent politics following the death of Ii Naosuke will result in the rise of one of the most famous symbols of the late Tokugawa era: the shishi, or men of spirit. These shishi groups, radicalized by the political trials of recent years, will introduce a degree of violence to Japanese politics not seen in generations, and pave the way for a fundamental change in Japanese politics.
Listen to the episode here.
Jansen, Marius. Sakamoto Ryoma and the Meiji Restoration.
Craig, Albert. Choshu in the Meiji Restoration.
Beasley, W.G. The Meiji Restoration.
Jansen, Marius. The Making of Modern Japan.